Craig McClanahan

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One of the primary values of the Java platform has been the concept of "write once, run anywhere." A key factor in achieving this goal has been the fact that Java, as a platform, has focused on defining standardized API specifications, which can be implemented by multiple providers who can compete on features and performance. For the application developer, the key benefit is portability across these implementations, avoiding vendor lock-in - as long as the standardized APIs are of sufficient power and usability to allow developers to create applications based on the standards, without having to rely on vendor extensions. The servlet API was the first "extension" API to be standardized. Its mission was to encapsulate the HTTP protocol in an object-oriented style accessible to Java developers, with added features that help maintain state across HTTP requests. The ori... (more)

Web Application Framework

The J2EE architecture is a great advance for developers. Its standardized framework defines and supports a multitiered programming model, freeing application developers to concentrate on solutions. This article is based on version 0.5 of Struts; some of the APIs will change slightly in subsequent versions. There are a number of ways to architect applications using J2EE technologies, including JSPs, servlets, and EJBs. However, there aren't any application development frameworks available that address how developers should create applications based on the J2EE architecture. The d... (more)